Beyond the immediate loss in Gaza — destruction of property, infrastructure, and the deaths of more than 2,200 people, mostly civilians and about 500 of them children — Israel’s onslaught will have long-term mental and physical effects on the Palestinian children who survived weeks of airstrikes and naval and tank shelling. Many of them watched as their relatives and friends were killed and homes, schools and mosques bombarded. Now children by the age of six have three wars after them. Those who survived are pessimistic about the future, question themselves why they did not die as well, and wait for the next war to come. Nothing can erase the horrible moments that happened during the war. Children believe in violence and they want to fight for lost lives of their beloved ones and their freedom. Even before the current military offensive, young Gazans bore the mental scars of years under siege and previous episodes of bombardment. After the 2012 war, the rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among children in Gaza doubled, according to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency, which provides assistance for Palestinian refugees. Mental health experts fear that the latest bombardment may create detrimental repercussions too difficult for children to overcome as Vast majority of Gaza children suffer PTSD symptoms.